• Mixed-Donor, α-Hydroxy Acid-Containing Chelates for ...

     · A series of five new α-hydroxy acid-containing chelates inspired by photoactive marine siderophores, along with their Fe(III) complexes, have been synthesized and characterized. These chelates, designated X-Sal-AHA, each contributes a bidentate salicylidene moiety (X-Sal, X = 5-NO2, 3,5-diCl, H, 3,5-di-tert-butyl, or 3-OCH3 on the phenolate ring) and a bidentate α-hydroxy acid moiety (AHA).

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  • Mechanisms of iron acquisition from siderophores by ...

    Most bacteria, fungi, and some plants respond to Fe stress by the induction of high-affinity Fe transport systems that utilize biosyrthetic chelates called siderophores. To competitively acquire Fe, some microbes have transport systems that enable them to use other siderophore types in addition to their own. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli achieve this ability by using a combination of ...

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  • The Analysis of Arabidopsis Nicotianamine Synthase …

    the mugineic acid family (Mori, 1999). Phytosidero-phores are strong Fe3+ chelators that are extruded to the rhizosphere, where they serve to chelate and solubilize Fe3+ (Ro¨mheld and Marschner, 1986a, 1986b). NAS genes form gene families in grasses that cover a range of expression patterns (Higuchi et al., 2001;Inoueetal.,2003;Mizunoetal ...

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  • Nicotianamine synthase 2 localizes to the vesicles of iron ...

     · We then determined whether the vesicles that were observed specifically in Fe-deficient barley, and are thought to be involved in Fe homeostasis (Nishizawa and Mori, 1987), also exist in rice roots.The epidermal cells of rice roots were observed around sunrise by electron microscopy (Figure 2).Under Fe-sufficient (Figure 2a) and -deficient (Figure 2b) conditions, organelles such as ...

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  • Siderophores in environmental research: roles and ...

     · The role of siderophores is primarily to scavenge Fe, but they also form complexes with other essential elements (i.e. Mo, Mn, Co and Ni) in the environment and make them available for microbial cells (Bellenger et al., 2008; Braud et al., 2009a,b). Siderophores are divided into three main families depending on the characteristic functional ...

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  • Mugineic acid, active ingredient of wheat grass: an oral ...

     · The efficacy of mugineic acid and WHE was compared with the potent oral iron chelator ICL670 (Exjade). PHZ and dextran treatment followed by oral administration of WHE or mugineic acid significantly checked the rise of serum/plasma levels of iron as well as tissue iron and also, haemosiderosis in tissues.

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  • Phytosiderophores

    Phytosiderophores (PS) are organic substances (nicotinamine, mugeniec acid, avenic acid, etc.) produced by plants under Fe- or Zn-deficient conditions, which can chelate Fe or Zn and increase their uptake by plants (Ueno et al., 2007). PS have received considerable attention in the recent past.

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  • Agronomy | Free Full-Text | Root Exudation: The Ecological ...

    For example, grasses secrete mugineic acid, a ligand for metal secreted by the roots, and the complex Fe(III)-AM reduce Fe toxicity and get it into root cells through a specific transporter YSL identified in maize [164,165]. However, passive transport with an electrochemical gradient cannot be done against the concentration gradient: it ...

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  • Mugineic Acid

    An increased research on phytosiderophores, for example, iron-chelating amino acids, isolated from graminaceous plants, has been noted. Focus was given, among others, to mugineic acid (23) and 3-epihydroxymugineic acid (152) 〈86JOC5489, 89JA3436, 92TA1069, 92TL7917, 92TL7921, 93T8211, 94T265〉.The most efficient precursor of the mugineic acid family appears to be l-methionine, …

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  • Facing the challenges of Cu, Fe and Zn homeostasis in plants

    as phytosiderophores, to bind Fe3+ for transport into the plant13. Phytosiderophores are synthesized from methionine and are usually referred to collectively as belonging to the mugineic acid family (the MAs). Expression of the genes involved in MA biosynthesis is upregu-lated under Fe deficiency14, resulting in increased release of MAs. In

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  • Intracellular iron sensing by the direct binding of iron ...

    Fe acquisition in higher plants is mediated by a chelation-based pathway using mugineic acid family phytosiderophores (Strategy II) or a reduction-based pathway using ferric-chelate reductases (Strategy I), depending on the species (Römheld and Marschner, 1986).

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  • Nicotianamine synthase 2 localizes to the vesicles of iron ...

     · Graminaceous plants release mugineic acid family phytosiderophores (MAs) to acquire iron from the soil. ... (Os02 g0612900) changed in OsNAS2–sGFP plants. This lipocalin may bind DMA or NA, and transport Fe between cells. KOR1, which encodes KORRIGAN1, a membrane-bound endo-1 ... Among them, OsNAS1 and OsNAS2 are suggested to play similar ...

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  • Nicotianamine

    Graminaceous plants (plants of the grass family) have developed a mechanism to solubilize insoluble iron in the soil. To do so, graminaceous plants secrete small molecules called mugineic acid–family phytosiderophores (MAs) that solubilize iron (Takagi, 1976). These MAs complex with insoluble Fe(III) in the soil and are transported through ...

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  • Differential gene expression analysis provides new ...

     · After that period, plants were divided into two groups, one of them was kept in the same conditions as mentioned above (18 μM Fe-EDDHA, control) while the other was watered with nutrient solution without Fe-EDDHA (0 μM Fe-EDDHA, iron deficiency). Plants were grown in …

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  • Cloning Two Genes for Nicotianamine Aminotransferase, a ...

    Nicotianamine aminotransferase (NAAT), the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of mugineic acid family phytosiderophores (MAs), catalyzes the amino transfer of nicotianamine (NA). MAs are found only in graminaceous plants, although NA has been detected in every plant so far investigated. Therefore, this amino transfer reaction is the first step in the unique biosynthesis of MAs that has ...

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  • Disruption of OsYSL15 Leads to Iron Inefficiency in

    Fe leaves, the promoter became active in all tissues except epidermal cells. This activity was also detected in flowers and seeds. The OsYSL15:green fluorescent protein fusion was localized to the plasma membrane. OsYSL15 functionally complemented yeast strains defective in Fe uptake on media containing Fe3+-deoxymugineic acid and Fe2 ...

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  • Cloning of Nicotianamine Synthase Genes, Novel Genes ...

    Nicotianamine synthase (NAS), the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for the mugineic acid family of phytosiderophores, catalyzes the trimerization of S -adenosylmethionine to form one molecule of nicotianamine. We purified NAS protein and isolated the genes nas1, nas2, nas3, nas4, nas5-1, nas5-2, and nas6, which encode NAS and NAS-like proteins from Fe-deficient barley ( Hordeum ...

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  • Understanding Chelation in Plants

     · Mugineic acid, (a non-protein amino acid) is a type of natural chelate called phytosiderophore. This is produced by various species of graminaceous (grassy) plants as they exhibit stress due to low-iron stress conditions. The exuded chelate then works by helping plants absorb nutrients in the root-solution-soil system.

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  • Strategies for Iron Biofortification of Crop Plants

    Fe serves as a prosthetic group in proteins to which it is associated either directly or through a heme or an iron-sulfur cluster. It exists in two redox states, the reduced ferrous Fe 2+ and the oxidized Fe 3+ form and is able to loose or gain an electron, respectively, within metalloproteins (e.g. Fe-S cluster or heme-Fe …

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  • Review on iron availability in soil: interaction of Fe ...

     · Iron (Fe) is an element relatively abundant in many cultivated soils with, on average, a total concentration of 20 to 40 g kg −1 (Cornell and Schwertmann 2003) its ferrous (Fe II) state, Fe is mainly present in primary minerals and some phyllosilicates; its oxidation to the ferric form (Fe III) leads to important changes in pedogenetic processes (Torrent and Cabedo 1986; Adriano 2001 ...

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  • A sensitive LC‐ESI‐Q‐TOF‐MS method reveals novel ...

     · Detection of nicotianamine (NA), 3"-oxo acid and phytosiderophores (PSs) in iron (Fe)-deficient Hordeum vulgare cv Himalaya roots by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). Fifteen-day-old plants were treated with Fe deficiency for 2 wk. NA, 3"-oxo acid, and then the PSs, deoxymugineic acid (DMA), mugineic acid …

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  • The Role of Siderophores on Plants under Heavy Meal Stress ...

    transport Fe II ion through the FeII-transporter in the plasma membrane. Therefore, ferric reductase is an important enzyme to tolerate of Fe-deficiency, in non-graminaceous plants. Graminaceous monocots release Fe-chelating substances such as mugineic acid family phytosiderophores (MAs), in response to Fe-deficiency stress.

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  • Rice genes involved in phytosiderophore biosynthesis are ...

     · The rice transcription factors IDEF1, IDEF2, and OsIRO2 have been identified as key regulators of the genes that control iron (Fe) uptake, including the biosynthesis of mugineic acid-family phytosiderophores (MAs). To clarify the onset of Fe deficiency, changes in gene expression were examined by microarray analysis using rice roots at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 h after the onset of Fe …

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  • Cloning of Nicotianamine Synthase Genes, Novel Genes ...

     · Nicotianamine synthase (NAS), the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for the mugineic acid family of phytosiderophores, catalyzes the trimerization of S -adenosylmethionine to form one molecule of nicotianamine. We purified NAS protein and isolated the genes nas1, nas2, nas3, nas4, nas5-1, nas5-2, and nas6, which encode NAS and NAS-like proteins from Fe-deficient barley ( …

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  • Transcriptional integration of plant responses to iron ...

     · In Strategy II, plants biosynthesize and secrete phytosiderophores of the mugineic acid (MA) family into the rhizosphere to chelate Fe 3+ (Kobayashi et al., 2014). Fe 3+ –MAs complexes are then transported into root cells by transporters of the YELLOW STRIPE 1 (YS1) and YELLOW STRIPE 1-like (YSL) family (Murata et al., 2006; Inoue et al., 2009).

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  • Nicotianamine Chelates Both FeIII and FeII. Implications ...

     · Nicotianamine (NA) occurs in all plants and chelates metal cations, including Fe II, but reportedly not Fe III . However, a comparison of the Fe II and Zn II affinity constants of NA and various Fe III -chelating aminocarboxylates suggested that NA should chelate Fe III . High-voltage electrophoresis of the FeNA complex formed in the presence of Fe III showed that the complex had a net charge ...

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  • Mechanisms of iron acquisition from siderophores by ...

    Abstract. Most bacteria, fungi, and some plants respond to Fe stress by the induction of high-affinity Fe transport systems that utilize biosynthetic chelates called siderophores. To competitively acquire Fe, some microbes have transport systems that enable them to use other siderophore types in …

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  • Rice phenolics efflux transporter 2 (PEZ2) plays an ...

    Marschner 1983). Rice secretes deoxymugineic acid (DMA) through TOM1 which binds to Fe (III), and the resulting Fe (III)-DMA complex is absorbed through OsYSL15 (Inoue et al. 2009; Nozoye et al. 2011). Rice is unique in the sense that besides using Strategy II, rice plants also possess a direct Fe2þ uptake system that uses

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  • Evolution and diversity of the 2–oxoglutarate‐dependent ...

     · HvIDS2 and HvIDS3 are involved in phytosiderophore mugineic acid biosynthesis, which is a natural metal chelator found specifically in graminaceous plants (Nakanishi et al., 2000; Kobayashi et al., 2001). IDS3 catalyzes hydroxylation of 2′–deoxymugineic acid to mugineic acid, whereas IDS2 is a 2OGD catalyzing 3–hydroxylation of mugineic acid.

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  • Rice endosperm iron biofortification by targeted and ...

    Rice endosperm iron biofortification by targeted and synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase and ferritin Judith Wirth1,†, Susanna Poletti1,‡, Beat Aeschlimann2, Nandadeva Yakandawala1,§, Benedikt Drosse1, Sonia Osorio3, Takayuki Tohge3, Alisdair R. Fernie3,DetlefGu¨nther2, Wilhelm Gruissem1,*andChristof Sautter1,* 1Department of Biology, Plant …

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  • Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants ...

     · Following nicotianamine production by nicotianamine synthase (NAS), deoxymugineic acid is formed by nicotianamine aminotransferase and subsequently converted to mugineic acid and its derivatives, which act as PS. The PS–Fe(III) complex is imported into the roots by yellow stripe 1 (YS1), which was first discovered in maize.

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  • Frontiers | Nicotianamine synthase overexpression ...

     · To cope with Fe starvation, rice roots release phytosiderophores (PS), which are molecules of the mugineic acid (MAs) family that form strong hexadentate chelates with Fe(III) to solubilize and transport it to the plant (Walker and Connolly, 2008; Palmer and Guerinot, 2009).

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  • Metabolic Interactions between Brachypodium and ...

     · Since mugineic acid and deoxymugineic acid were over 2-fold more abundant in the nutrient solution of −Fe treatments than that of +Fe treatments, we investigated the transcriptional response of SBW25 to Fe deprivation in order to identify gene targets that potentially encode transporters or enzymes involved in phytosiderophore utilization.

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  • IDS2

    Involved in the biosynthesis of mugineic acid family of phytosiderophores. Hydroxylates the C-3 positions of mugineic acid (MA) and 2''-deoxymugineic acid (DMA). May be involved in boron tolerance.2 Publications. "Two dioxygenase genes, Ids3 and Ids2, from Hordeum vulgare are involved in the biosynthesis of mugineic acid family phytosiderophores."

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  • Transporters of ligands for essential metal ions in plants ...

     · Mugineic acid and nicotianamine. Fe 3+ is relatively insoluble in alkaline soils and two alternative mechanisms for Fe acquisition have evolved in plants. Nongraminaceous monocots and dicots, the ''strategy I plants'', acidify the rhizosphere (presumably via an H + ‐ATPase) to increase Fe solubility and use a ferric‐reductase to reduce Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ which is transported into roots via ...

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  • Facing the challenges of Cu, Fe and Zn homeostasis in plants

     · In plants, there is no known chaperone for Zn or Fe, although a group recently identified an Fe chaperone in humans 86. In plants, Fe is often found chelated to …

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  • Nicotianamine

    Nicotianamine synthases are SAM-dependent aminoalkyltransferases known to produce the metal ion carrier nicotianamine found within plants. Nicotianamine is the precursor to a larger family of metallophores known as mugineic acids (MA). While nicotianamine can be isolated from all plants, MA and MA derivatives are found only in graminaceous or grassy plants where they are secreted from …

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  • Iron Biofortification of Staple Crops: Lessons and ...

    In grasses and cereals, derivatives of NA—mugineic acid and deoxymugineic acid (DMA)—are secreted in the rhizosphere where they chelate Fe 3+. The Fe-chelator complexes are transported into the cell by YS1 in maize and YSL15 in rice (Curie et al. 2001, Curie et al. 2009).

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