• An expert system to select acid gas treating processes for ...

    An expert system was developed to select near-optimum acid gas treating processes in natural gas processing plants using heuristic knowledge from experts and literature. The near-optimum processes are defined as highly applicable processes for given conditions.

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  • PRODUCTION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID

    acid. There are three possible subgroups of wet processes depending on the acid that is used for the acidulation. This may be nitric, hydrochloric or sulphuric but this Booklet is con-cerned only with processes using the sulphuric acid route since this is the process normal-ly used in the production of fertilizers in Europe.

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  • Process Selection Manufacturing processes

    1 ME 474-674 Winter 2008 Slides 7 -1 More info: "Materials Selection in Mechanical Design", Chapters 7 and 8 Process Selection Processes and their attributes Screening by attributes Selecting shape-forming processes Selecting joining processes Selecting surface-treatment processes Case study + demos ME 474-674 Winter 2008 Slides 7 -2 ...

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  • Chapter 3: Guide to Selection Of Water Treatment Process ...

    Process flexibility. Utility capabilities. Costs. Environmental compatibility . Distribution system water quality. Issues of process scale. This chapter begins with a brief discussion of alternatives to water treatment, followed by a review of the various factors that may influence the selection of a water treatment process.

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  • Acid Gas Treating

     · Acid Gas Treating Chapter 10 Based on presentation by Prof. Art Kidnay. Updated: January 4, 2019 ... Two step process Two steps Remove the acid gases from natural gas Dispose of the acid gases Disposition CO 2 ... Processes for acid gas removal 7 Chemical Physical Amine MEA DGA DEA DIPA MDEA Catacarb Giammarco Vetrocoke

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  • Guide to Selection of Water Treatment Processes

    Selecting the appropriate treatment process is a critical step in providing safe, reliable, good quality drinking water at a cost‐effective price. This article provides guidance in selecting appropriate treatment processes taking into account raw water quality and costs.

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  • Acid and Sour Gas Treating Book

    The selection of a physical solvent process depends on process objectives and characteristics of the solvents, such as selectivity for H 2 S, COS, HCN, etc., ease of handling water content in feed gas, ease of controlling water content of circulating solvent, concurrent hydrocarbon loss or removal with acid gas removal, solvent cost, solvent ...

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  • Acid washing Techinique

     · Acid wash is again becoming popular on denim jeans and we are going to see more of acid washes in the coming seasons. Here, let''s have a quick look at the acid washing process. An acid wash finish treatment creates significant contrasts in the color of the denim material. It can be done on Indigo & Sulphur base fabric garments.

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  • Recovery of acids and bases used in metal treatment ...

    Recovery of acids by means of DD is in the range of 80 – 90%, treating acids in a concentration range of 1 – 7 Normal. It is possible to attain salt content as low as 10 ppm, by the use of Neosepta AHS-2. Recently, new membranes have been developed which can be used in the DD process …

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  • Column Optimization for Amine Based Acid Gas Removal …

    absorption processes. For gas treatment, amines d to react with undesirables acid gases. A typical process based on an amine solution is shown in the Figure 1. These processes can support large quantities of H 2 S economically, and CO 2 may also be controlled if necessary. Figure 1. Flowsheet of an absorption process by amines. [2]

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  • ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

    Surface Treatment Processes steps where sodium dichromate might be involved..... 2 Figure 2: Illustration of the development, qualification, certification and industrialisation process required in the

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  • Biological Wastewater Treatment: Selecting the Process ...

     · (Page 1) Chemical, pharmaceutical and related industries produce large amounts of wastewater in their production and cleaning processes. The wastewater characteristics are often diverse, and may include minimally biodegradable or toxic substances, or both. This article explains how a biological wastewater-treatment process was developed for a challenging situation where the …

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  • PROCESS SIMULATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL …

    Acid gas removal process, which is also known as gas sweetening process, is a very important industrial operation that has been described in many works. The main processes installed are based on absorption, and the selection of the solvent is based on its capability to absorb or remove acid gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2)

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  • Sulfur is an extremely useful element. Its largest ...

    The Claus Process is the most widely used process for conversion of H 2 S to elemental sulfur. Variations of the Claus Process, Direct Oxidation, and Liquid Redox Processes, can overlap other processes'' applicability ranges. Figure 1 is a Sulfur Recovery Process Applicability Chart which presents the relative ranges of technology applications.

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  • Acid and Sour Gas Treating Processes (Book) | OSTI.GOV

    Here is a single source of the latest data and methods for selecting and designing economical gas treating processes. It includes papers from the 1984 Symposium on Acid and Sour Gas Treating Processes and covers pollution abatement, coal liquefaction, flue gas desulfurization, shale oil processing, and refinery gas cleanup. Authors: Newman, S H.

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  • SWEETENING TECHNOLOGIES – A LOOK AT THE WHOLE …

    - acid gas disposal method: venting or reinjection - energy costs - inlet gas pressure and CO 2 content - CO 2 specification - power availability, remoteness of location Most selection guidelines focus on the sweetening process and consider it as an isolated facility.

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  • Separation Technology for the Chemical Process Industry

    columns for the treatment of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, as well as the removal of phosgene and solvent traces by absorption. More than 100 hydrochloric acid absorbers are in operation with Sulzer Mellapak. Crystallization of MDI Crystallization is the most gentle way to purify MDI for the poly-urethane market, a process with

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  • 6.2.1. Acid Gas Removal (AGR) | netl.doe.gov

    Operation. Acid gases produced in gasification processes mainly consist of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon dioxide (CO 2).Syngas exiting the particulate removal and gas conditioning systems, typically near ambient temperature at 100°F, needs to be cleaned of the sulfur-bearing acid gases to meet either environmental emissions regulations, or to protect downstream ...

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  • PROCESS MODELLING SELECTION OF THERMODYNAMIC …

    The selection of a suitable thermodynamic model for the prediction of enthalpy (H) and phase equilibrium (K) is fundamental to process modelling. Selection of an inappropriate model will result in convergence problems and erroneous results. The selection process is driven by considering the following:- Process species and compositions.

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  • Acid Gas Removal (AGR)|CHIYODA CORPORATION

    This process removes H 2 S, CO 2 and organic sulfurs (such as mercaptan and COS) in the raw feed gas so as to make it comply with LNG liquefaction process or sales gas production standards. To be specific, amine counter-currently contacts the source gas inside the absorber column, and the hazardous acid gas substances are absorbed by amine for treatment.

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  • Comparison of Fluor Solvent and Selexol Processes

    Processes . Physical solvent processes can be very useful for acid gas removal ... Paso''s Tenell County Treating Plant was a first of a kind ... good indicators of the solvent''s relative effectiveness in The selection of a phYSical solvent process depends on

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  • Acid Gas Treating Process Selection | Hydrocarbon Compression

     · Each of the previous treating processes has advantages relative to the others for certain applications; therefore, in selection of the appropriate process, the following facts should be considered: 1. The type of acid contaminants present in the gas stream. 2. The concentrations of each contaminant and degree of removal desired. 3.

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  • Acid gas treating process selection basis

    Acid gas treating selection basis: Type of acid contaminants present in the gas stream; Concentrations of each contaminant and degree of removal required; Gas volume, temperature, and pressure; The desirability of selectively removing one or more of the contaminants without removing the others; The feasibility of recovering sulfur

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  • A Summary of Passive and Active Treatment Technologies …

    filtration/settling, ion exchange and crystallisation. By far the most common process for treating AMD is via pH control. The selection of an appropriate treatment system requires an understanding of the "Acidity", flow rate and "Acidity Load" (ie. the product of Acidity and flow rate) of …

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  • Treatment processes in petroleum refining

    Sulfuric acid is the most commonly used acid treating process. Sulfuric acid treating results in partial or complete removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons, sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds, and resinous andasphaltic compounds. It is used to improve the odor, color, stability, carbon residue, and other properties of the oil. Clay/lime ...

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  • PROCESS SIMULATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF …

    Acid gas removal process, which is also known as gas sweetening process, is a very important industrial operation that has been described in many works. The main processes installed are based on absorption, and the selection of the solvent is based on its capability to absorb or remove acid gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2)

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  • Consider Base Oil and Refining Method When Selecting ...

    This process involves the treatment of crude oil distillates with sulfuric acid or oleum. It initially improves the color and aging tendencies while increasing density and viscosity index. Today, the use of acid/clay refining processes is limited to the manufacturing of some white oils and sulfonates along with the regeneration of some waste oils.

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  • process selection of acid treating processes

     · Gas Pre-Treatment and their Impact on Liquefaction ProcessesCarbon Dioxide ex acid gas treating unit < 50 ppmv … The effect of H2S removal on the gas treating processes is …treating process selection study to identify the … »More detailed

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  • Amine gas treating

    Amine gas treating, also known as amine scrubbing, gas sweetening and acid gas removal, refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various alkylamines (commonly referred to simply as amines) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) from gases. It is a common unit process used in refineries, and is also used in petrochemical plants, natural gas processing ...

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  • Selection of wastewater treatment process based on the ...

    aerobic treatment processes operated in Iran''s industrial estates and determining the main criteria used for treatment process evaluation, they are arranged in a hierarchy structure. Selection of the best wastewater treatment process is a multi-criteria decision making problem.

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  • Acetic Acid Process Plant Design

    2. Process Selection 2.1 Process Technology Selection The methanol carbonylation, direct oxidation of n-butane and direct oxidation of ethylene are the three most widely implemented methods to manufacture acetic acid. Methanol carbonylation also known as the "Monsanto process" was initially developed by …

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  • Acid Gas Removal | FSC 432: Petroleum Refining

    The rich solution containing the acid gases is sent to a flash drum to recover the C 1 and C 2 hydrocarbons from the rich solution to be used as fuel gas in the refinery to generate process heat, or steam in fired furnaces. The rich solvent is then sent to a regenerator still to remove the acid gases that are sent to the sulfur recovery unit.

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  • PROCESS MODELING AND COMPARISON STUDY OF ACID …

    2.4 Acid Gas 2.5 Acid Gas Removal Processes 2.6 Process Chemistry 2.7 Hysys Process Simulation Package 11-13 14-15 16-17 18-20 21 3 METHDOLOGY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Obtain the flow sheet and design data of AGRU 3.3 Select the suitable package for AGRU simulation process 3.4 Simulate AGRU process using MEA, DEA and MDEA as a chemical solvent

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  • Acid and Sour Gas Treating Processes

    A useful handbook on acid and sour treatment for engineers and university students. Chapters 1. Gas Treating with a Physical Solvent 2. Comparison of Physical Solvents Used for Gas Processing 3. The Rectisol - New Developments in Acid Gas Removal from Synthesis Gas 4. Improved AMISOL Process for Gas Purification 5.

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  • Sour gas sweetening

     · This process is significant for treating gas with a large concentration of CO 2. The chemistry of the process can be enhanced by the addition of various catalysts, and this has resulted in the process being referred to by various trade names. Computer simulation of sweetening processes

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  • A Comparison of Physical Solvents for Acid Gas Removal …

    processes. The main application for the Rectisol process is purification of synthesis gases derived from the gasification of heavy oil and coal rather than natural gas treating applications [4]. The two-stage Ifpexol process can be used for natural gas applications. Ifpex-1 removes condensable hydrocarbons and water, and Ifpex-2 removes acid ...

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  • (PDF) Gas sweetening process | SUBHASISH MITRA

    A Technical Report on Gas Sweetening by Amines Subhasish Mitra, Sr. Process Engineer Petrofac Engineering (I) Ltd, Mumbai, India Gas sweetening by amine Content 1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Gas sweetening basics 7 3.0 Alkanolamine gas treatment basics 8 4.0 Alkanolamine gas treating chemistry 13 5.0 Alkanolamine processes-strengths and weakness/solvent selection 20 6.0 Amine system …

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  • An expert system to select acid gas treating processes for ...

     · For any given problem of acid gas treating, the fuzzy expert system was useful in selecting a subset of acid gas removal processes for more rigorous technical and economical evaluation. 2 The method using applicability matrices to develop fuzzy expert systems is straightforward and should be applicable to other selection problems in which ...

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